Sent's point of view: Transformer-based isolated LED driver power supply will be the mainstream; in order to solve the quality problems caused by improper system thermal design, the industry is evaluating other non-electrolytic capacitor technology; in addition, due to temperature problems in the refrigeration environment, LED Refrigerated lighting will be a faster growing area.
Both isolated and non-isolated LED drive power solutions have advantages and disadvantages. We believe that Class II will dominate the AC/DC lighting sector as it simplifies LED cooling. Class I or II systems rely on grounding systems, and in most cases, the grounding system depends on the specific device. Class II systems are common, requiring transformer magnetic windings, insulating tapes, and physical isolation. ClassI systems require grounded racks and/or mechanical barriers, which are not required for Class II systems.
The most important factor affecting the reliability and longevity of electrolytic capacitors is the higher operating temperature, while LED luminaires typically operate at higher temperatures. Electrolytic capacitors can and are being used in lighting applications, but in order to address the quality issues that may result from improper thermal design of the system, as previously mentioned, other non-electrolytic capacitor technologies are being evaluated and often used.
In mobile and LCD TV systems, white LEDs will continue to capture market share from CCFL. Rugged applications will increasingly use LEDs, especially in the automotive, aerospace, industrial and medical sectors. Solid-state lighting will grow in areas where the higher initial cost of LEDs is offset by longer life, energy efficiency and lower maintenance costs. These areas include warehouses, parking garages and some architectural lighting. Refrigerated lighting is a fast-growing area where temperature problems are alleviated.
There are several trends in the development of LED lighting. One is the increasing efficiency of high-brightness LEDs and the increased supply of highly efficient, reliable constant current power supplies that drive these LEDs. Secondly, relevant regulations have been formulated around the world, which indicates that low-efficiency incandescent lamps have come to an end, and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) will gradually withdraw from the stage. If broken, compact fluorescent lamps emit harmful mercury into the surrounding environment. Under the combined effect of these factors, in the long run, the use of LED lighting will be an inevitable choice. Of course, reducing system costs, including LEDs, thermal management systems, and LED drivers, has been an important factor in driving LED general lighting products to be widely adopted by consumers.
The main challenge for OEMs is to meet energy standards set by governments and industries that specify efficiency and power factor. At the same time, it is also compatible with TRIAC dimming. As important as complying with energy regulations, quality and long-term reliability are also key factors in determining the success of LEDs, as one of the advantages of LED lighting that manufacturers are promoting is that their lifetimes are much longer than traditional lighting technologies. This can only be achieved if the overall system has long-term reliability. This has always been the case. In fact, faults are common for many lighting products, mainly in terms of power, not LEDs.
At the design level, this means that OEMs must be good at system thermal design. LEDs have high performance (lumens/watt) but produce significantly more conduction heat than incandescent or fluorescent lamps. And because many applications are packaged in a closed rack, there is little air flow that cools the system. If the thermal management system is not carefully designed, the LEDs and their power circuits may experience degradation or premature failure due to high temperatures.
All auto filters are designed to prevent harmful debris from entering any parts where air and fluid flows, including your engine, radiator, fuel lines and more. Once a filter is no longer performing its intended function, decreased performance-even engine damage-can result.
When your air filter is dirty, your engine is forced to work harder, resulting in poor fuel economy, higher emissions and, possibly, a loss of engine power. In turn, as a worst-case scenario, a clogged Cabin Air Filter can lead to under-performance of the A/C system, causing weak air flow from the cabin vents. It can also lead to unwanted, unfiltered air in the cabin. As for a mucked-up fuel filter, that`ll land you with a weakened fuel supply to injectors, a reduction in engine power, poor acceleration and lousy fuel economy-not to mention a potential breakdown.
They protect vital car parts by keeping harmful debris at bay so your car runs right. Filters also ensure your car runs more efficiently. The cleaner your filter, the more it allows for the maximum flow of air or fluid through the system. Like a clogged drain, a dirty filter starves the system of the vital air or fluid and makes each system it protects work harder to do its job. Once filters are dirtied, they should be replaced.
it`s recommended that you get your filters replaced every 12 months or 12,000 miles, but check your owner`s manual for specifics about your vehicle`s filter replacement schedules.
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