Comprehensive analysis of LED spotlights (below)

Spotlights are typical headless lights, modern genre lighting of a fixed size, which can create an indoor lighting atmosphere. If a row of small spotlights is combined, the light can change into a wonderful pattern. Since the small spotlights can freely change the angle, the effect of the combined lighting is also ever-changing. The lighting light line is soft, and it can also be used for local lighting.
Comprehensive analysis of LED spotlights (below)
Yesterday, the author made a brief introduction in the article "Comprehensive analysis of LED spotlights (on)", and further understanding of the technology, specifications and structure of LED spotlights. If you want to use LED spotlights better, what issues should you pay attention to? Below, the author and everyone to discuss the knowledge about LED spotlights.
(1) LED spotlights purchase common sense
According to the size of the light surface, the spotlights can be divided into PAR16, PAR20, PAR30, and PAR38. The common lamp heads are GU10, E27, E14, etc. These spotlights are powered by 85~265VAC. There is also an MR16 spotlight with GU5.3, powered by 12VAC, and an electronic transformer or power frequency transformer at the front end to convert 22OVAC to 12VAC.
The angle of the spotlight is generally below 65°, mainly used for local lighting, accent lighting and other occasions. The LED spotlight angles of various manufacturers are mostly concentrated in the range of 12°, 24°, and 36°.
According to "GB 50034-2004 Architectural Lighting Design Standards", the color temperature of indoor lighting sources can be divided into three groups, less than 3300K for warm colors, suitable for rooms, bedrooms, wards, bars, restaurants; 3300K ~ 5300K for intermediate colors, suitable for office , classrooms, reading rooms, clinics, inspection rooms, machining workshops, instrument assembly; more than 5300K for cool colors, suitable for hot processing workshops, high illumination places [1]. At present, the relevant international and domestic standards are basically quoted "ANSI C78.377", the color temperature is divided into 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000K, 4500K, 5000K, 5700K, 6500K, the color tolerance range of each color temperature is shown in Figure 1. .
Figure 1: LED color temperature tolerance range
Therefore, LED spotlights are also usually classified according to color temperature. However, LED spotlights are mainly used for indoor lighting, and the color temperature is mainly concentrated in the grades of 2700K, 3000K, 4000K and 5700K.
In "GB 50034-2004 Architectural Lighting Design Standards", the color rendering index (Ra) of the illumination source should not be less than 80 in a room or place where work or stays for a long time. In industrial buildings where the installation height of the luminaire is greater than 6 m, Ra can be less than 80, but it must be able to distinguish the safety color.
LED spotlights need to think about interface standardization
When purchasing LED spotlights, you need to read the instructions or package instructions provided by the manufacturer to determine the power supply voltage and product related parameters, including luminous flux, color temperature, power, color rendering index, and angle. In indoor lighting, when purchasing LED spotlights, it is first necessary to determine whether to use direct power supply from the mains or power supply after transformer conversion, in order to choose whether to purchase MR16 or other spotlights; secondly, to determine the lamp head of the spotlight and The size of the light; then you need to confirm the angle range of the spotlights you need; finally, according to the above requirements of GB 50034-2004 Architectural Lighting Design Standards, confirm the color temperature and color rendering index according to the use occasions to achieve the desired lighting effect. If you don't understand the parameters of the luminaire, you can check the equivalent mark on the package and see how much power is equivalent to the traditional luminaire.
Due to the uneven LED spotlights of various manufacturers, many manufacturers do not completely refer to the IEC 60630 design spotlight shape in order to solve the problem of heat dissipation and power supply space. The spotlights are sometimes used as the light source of some lamps, so it needs to be clear. Whether the LED spotlight can be loaded into the luminaire. If it can't be loaded, you need to purchase a matching lamp housing for a one-piece replacement. For the MR16 spotlight, since there is an electronic transformer or power frequency transformer at the front end, it is necessary to confirm whether it can be compatible with the transformer when purchasing the MR16. If it is not compatible, the light will flash or not. For thyristor dimming spotlights, you also need to consider the compatibility of the luminaire and the dimmer, otherwise there will be flashing or dimming when dimming.
(II) Thinking on the development direction of LED spotlights and its standardization interface
At present, LED spotlights are mainly used to replace traditional tungsten halogen lamp, which is limited by its shape, lamp head and installation requirements, which makes the design of LED spotlights face many difficulties. In the standard size range of existing spotlights, it is difficult to achieve high power and high luminous flux of an LED spotlight. At the same time, it also faces many difficulties in light distribution, heat dissipation and electrical safety. It cannot reflect the long life and high luminous efficiency of LED. Such characteristics are not conducive to the healthy development of LED lighting.
LED is a new type of light source, LED spotlight is one of the earliest applications that can reflect the characteristics of LED. According to the characteristics of LEDs, a new set of standard specifications for LED spotlights should be developed. The external dimensions of LED spotlights, module components, parameter bins, standard interfaces, etc. are specified to achieve modularization and interchangeability of LEDs, thereby promoting the healthy development of LED lighting.
At present, the international ZHAGA Alliance attracts hundreds of manufacturers, industry and related companies from the United States, Asia and Europe, and has developed specifications for interface specifications for LED lamps. It is committed to enhancing the compatibility of LED modules and their controls in terms of mechanics, testing, and parameters. Relevant technical specifications have been published and some have been revised several times. In China, the National Semiconductor Lighting Engineering R&D and Industry Alliance led the organization of Jiuzhou Optoelectronics and other companies, and is also actively carrying out related work.
Summary: With the continuous maturity of LED technology and the continuous reduction of cost, LED spotlights have been initially popularized and will be widely applied to various occasions. However, the development and popularization of LED spotlights still face many problems. How to develop cost-effective LED spotlights; how to solve the heat dissipation problem of high-power, high-luminance LED spotlights; how to realize the modularity and interchangeability of LED spotlights; how to fully reflect the long life, high light efficiency and controllability of LEDs Features, so that ordinary people can enjoy a variety of lighting, get more affordable, safer and more reliable LED products, but also need to work together with manufacturers and industry professionals.
Extended reading:
Comprehensive analysis of LED spotlights (on)

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