After more than a century of development, the automobile has been well-established in terms of mechanical structure. The way to improve the performance of automobiles by changing the traditional mechanical structure and related structural parameters is approaching the limit. Due to increasing safety, energy saving and environmental protection requirements and fierce market competition, automobiles have become more than just a means of transport, but also have many functions such as office, entertainment, learning, and communication, and they have begun to take steps toward becoming electronic and informatized. Network and intelligence development. Now that automobiles have evolved from traditional mechanical products into advanced mechatronic products, basic automotive electronic components have become the â€œcontrol nervesâ€ and â€œnerve endingsâ€ in this system.
Automotive electronics can be divided into automotive control electronics and automotive automotive electronics, and automotive control electronics are the so-called "electromechanical" automotive electronics. These include electronic controls for the engine, chassis, and body, such as electronic fuel injection systems, and anti-lock braking. Control, anti-skid control, traction control, electronically controlled suspension, electronically controlled automatic transmission, electronic power steering, etc. Vehicle-mounted automotive electronic devices are electronic devices that can be used independently in the automotive environment. They are not directly related to the performance of the vehicle itself.
High reliability requirements for automotive electronic components
The automotive control electronics system is mainly based on sensors, controllers, actuators and other electronic components and plays an important supporting role for the entire automotive system.
Automotive sensors are the information "capturers" of automotive electronic control systems. They are key components and the core of research in automotive electronics. An ordinary car needs dozens of sensors, and the number of sensors on a luxury sedan can reach more than two hundred. Sensors are mainly used in the automotive engine control system, chassis control system and body control system
The vehicle controller uses a microcontroller (MCU) as its core, including front-end A/D converters, digital signal buffers, and amplifiers. With the increasing convergence of communications, connectivity, computer technology and automobiles, the number of microcontrollers used in automobiles is increasing. The number of microcontrollers in general automobiles is about 50. It is the core component of automotive electronics. From simple light control to sophisticated engine control, automotive remote communications, etc., different levels of microcontrollers are in one system. All play an irreplaceable role.
The actuator is used to accurately execute the command signal issued by the electronic controller. At present, there are many types of electromechanical actuators for automobiles, such as solenoid valves, piezoelectric elements, ignition electronic components, relays, and thermocouples. Among them, relays are most active in development, and relays are automatic switching elements with isolation functions, which are widely used in automotive control electronics.
Vehicle-mounted automotive electronic devices include automotive information systems, trip computers, navigation systems, car audio and video entertainment systems, and automotive communication systems. The types of electronic components required for the device are not significantly different from those of ordinary household electrical appliances, digital products, and communications. However, due to the long-term vibration and harsh external environment of vehicle-mounted automotive electronics, the reliability of electronic components such as tensile strength, bending resistance, vibration resistance, corrosion resistance, and high temperature resistance is high.
China's automotive electronic components still rely on imports
As the largest automobile producer and consumer country in China, automobile sales reached 21.98 million in 2013. The automotive electronics market, which accounts for about 25% of the cost of automobiles, exceeds 300 billion yuan. However, it is not optimistic that China's current automotive electronics products are still mainly imported. China's self-produced automotive electronics products lack the core technology, mainly in the low-end market. In the control electronics market, except for a certain amount of components such as relays, the market share of other control electronics products is very low, especially sensors, except for some of the temperature sensors and pressure sensors that require less Very few; relatively low requirements for vehicle-mounted electronics, similar to the type of digital electronics for home appliances, China's development in recent years is very rapid, such as the production of navigation equipment based Hang Sheng Electronics, Neusoft Group, production alarms and other electronic products Qiming information, The performance of companies such as Sunlord Electronics, which manufactures products such as inductors and GPS antennas, has developed rapidly. Even so, most of Chinaâ€™s automotive electronics components still rely on imports.
At present, the overall market share of domestic automotive electronic components is not high. We believe that the main reason is that in addition to the low level of technology, it has a lot to do with the nature of Chinaâ€™s current auto manufacturers. As we all know, most of the cars produced in China are joint venture brands. Assembled in China, most of the parts and components are imported from abroad. This has suppressed China's automobile industry chain to a great extent. Automobile electronics also has insufficient technology R&D investment due to lack of market support, resulting in a certain degree of vicious circle. . However, like home appliances in the 1980s and digital communication electronics in the 2000s, Chinaâ€™s automotive electronics industry is also at a turning point. Many powerful companies have already invested more in the development of automotive electronic components. As a practitioner, we believe that the technical level of foreign automotive electronic components is not unmatched. In time, we will be able to catch up to even surpass them. Sooner or later, automotive electronics and home appliances will be led by our country sooner or later.
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